1. Review: the present perfect tense

The present perfect is used for actions that have been completed before now.

The action is finished, but the time is not finished.

*Unfinished times = now, today, this week, this month, my life, etc.

To make the present perfect tense, use:

  • subject + have + perfect participle (p.p.) + unfinished time

*Perfect participle (p.p.) = gone, done, seen, eaten etc.
*The unfinished time can go at the start or end of the structure.

The unfinished time can be dropped if it is general, already known, or somebody’s life.

SubjectHaveP.p.Unfinished timeExample sentence
Ihavefinished(today)I have finished my work.
Peterhasretired(Peter’s life)Peter has retired.
Her parentshavetaken(recently)Her parents have taken her bicycle to the shop.
Theyhavevisitedthis yearThey have visited Singapore six or seven times this year.

2. What is the passive voice?

The passive voice changes ‘x did something to y’ into ‘y has something done to it (by x)’.

It is made by:

  • object + be + perfect participle (+ by subject)

*Perfect participle (p.p.) = gone, done, seen, eaten etc.

‘Be’ changes depending on the tense you want to use (present, past, future, perfect, etc.).

3. The present perfect tense (passive voice)

The present perfect (passive) uses the structure:

  • object + have + been + p.p. (+ by subject) + unfinished time
ObjectHaveBeenP.p.(by subject)Unfinished timeExample sentence
The playershavebeentoldby the managerthis seasonThe players have been told by the manager not to get so many red cards this season.
Kellyhasbeengivenby four teachersthis weekKelly has been given detention by four teachers this week.
The filmhasbeenwatchedby 2 million peoplesince it was releasedThe film has been watched by 2 million people since it was released.
The donkeyhasbeentreated(by people)(in its life)The donkey has been badly treated.

4. Converting a present perfect into its passive voice

To change a present perfect into its passive voice:

1. swap the subject and object
2. change ‘have + p.p.’ into ‘have been + p.p.’

Present perfectPresent perfect (passive)
I have done my homework.The homework has been done (by me).
They have finished the repairs.The repairs have been finished.
The salesman has sold that car.That car has been sold.

5. Exercises

1. Change these sentences into the passive voice:
(i) Someone has broken the television.
(ii) Somebody has opened a new bakery on the high street.
(iii) City have beaten United 2-1.

2. Change these sentences out of the passive voice:
(i) A tree has been pulled down by the wind.
(ii) This painting has been bought by an anonymous millionaire.
(iii) Fourteen bicycles have been stolen by the thieves this week alone.