1. Ways to express ‘which one’
The ways to help people know which object you are talking about:
- Noun + ‘prepositional phrase’
- Noun + ‘participle phrase’
2. Noun + prepositional phrase
Prepositional phrases use prepositions.
on, in, under, next to, by, with
To make a prepositional phrase:
- subject + preposition + preposition’s object
|Subject||Preposition||Preposition’s object||Prepositional phrase||Example sentence|
|the child||in||the corner||the child in the corner||Give this cake to the child in the corner.|
|the woman||by||the door||the woman by the door||I was just speaking to the woman by the door, and she told me something interesting.|
|the man||with||the beard||the man with the beard||Ellis doesn’t like the man with the beard.|
3. How to use the participle phrase
Participle phrases use …ing.
Examples of participle phrases are:
doing …, going …., sitting …
To make a participle phrase:
- subject + participle + participle’s object
|Subject||…ing||Participle’s object||Participle phrase||Example sentence|
|the child||sitting in||the corner||the child sitting in the corner||I find the child sitting in the corner so annoying.|
|the woman||drinking||the wine||the woman drinking the wine||Graeme was once married to the woman drinking the wine.|
|the man||speaking to||the doctor||the man speaking to the doctor||Molly plays badminton with the man speaking to the doctor.|
4. Using prepositional phrases and participle phrases
Preposition phrases and participle phrases can be used together.
The preposition phrase usually comes first.
|Subject||Prepositional phrase||Participal phrase||Phrases combined||Example sentence|
|the child||with the lollipop||sitting in the corner||the child with the lollipop sitting in the corner||This toy belongs to the child with the lollipop sitting in the corner.|
|the woman||with the long back hair||playing the piano||the woman with the long black hair playing the piano||The most beautiful person here is the woman with the long black hair playing the piano.|
|the man||under the table||hiding from the police||the man under the table hiding from the police||Do you know the man under the table hiding from the police?|
5. Adding adjectives
For more detail, add an adjective to the first noun.
|The ugly statue with two heads.||The fashionable girl with the blue shoes dancing on the dancefloor.|
|The really tall tree standing by the door.||The cowardly man under the table hiding from the police.|
Using adjectives, prepositional phrases and participle phrases, describe ‘which…’ for things in the room around you (example: the orange folder next to the blue book sitting on the table).